Can testosterone levels predict who the leader of a group will be?

No, but…

The study of the biological underpinnings of behavior is in its nascent stages in the field of management. We study how the hormone testosterone (T) is related to status and collective efficacy in a group. We assessed salivary testosterone of 579 individuals in 92 teams. We find that T does not predict status within the group. We also tested the effects of a mismatch between T and status in the group on the collective efficacy of the group. Using a novel slope-as-predictor multilevel structural equation model, we find that the greater the mismatch between T and status in the group (i.e., the more negative the within-group correlation among T and status), the lower is the collective efficacy of the group. We discuss the implications of our findings for the study of the biological underpinnings of group behavior in organizations.

Source: “Testosterone–status mismatch lowers collective efficacy in groups: Evidence from a slope-as-predictor multilevel structural equation model” from Organizational Behavior and Human Decision ProcessesVolume 110, Issue 2, November 2009, Pages 70-79

For a deeper look at that much maligned hormone, I recommend this book.

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