This paper suggests that there are consistent patterns in how different groups of individuals perceive their relative ideological position. Using data from a large-scale cross-country survey on individuals views and personal characteristics it compares who reports themselves as being left(right) wing and who on an objective measure are actually left(right) wing. It finds, for example, the more educated on average believe themselves to be more left wing than their actual beliefs on a substantive issue might suggest.
Source: “Who is left-wing, and who just thinks they are?” from Department of Economics, University of Leicester, Discussion Papers in Economics, 09/23
Can you tell if someone is a Republican or Democrat just by looking at their face?