This study tested the possibility that hit-by-pitch events in Major League Baseball could be explained by theories of aggression. Consistent with the general aggression model, personal and situational characteristics interacted to predict these events. Pitchers were more likely to hit batters in situations that allowed them to restore justice and protect valued social identities. Higher order interactions revealed that the likelihood of being hit by a pitch in these situations depended on the background of the pitcher and the race of the batter. Consistent with the culture of honor theory, pitchers from the southern United States were more likely to hit batters in these situations, but primarily if the batter was White. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)
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